Common causes to the eye include lesions caused by fingernails, puncture wounds, paper cuts, scratches to the tear ducts, chemical burns, and blunt force trauma to the eyeball itself or the surrounding structures. Blunt force trauma normally is the result of direct blows to the eye or the structures around the eye. The most common cause of a blunt force wound is from participation in a sporting event, such as boxing, baseball, football, basketball or soccer. Vision loss caused by ocular trauma occurs most frequently in individuals under the age of 25 years. Most types of eye trauma can be prevented by using protective eyewear or special goggles.
Although most types of eye trauma can eventually result in some percentage of vision loss, immediate medical attention may prevent it from being severe. For vision loss to occur, the macula, retina, cornea or optic nerve must receive substantial damage to cause disruptions in the field of vision. If the cornea is damaged due to scratching or some type of penetration, scar tissue can form that disrupts the field of vision. Blunt force trauma can cause ruptures to the eyeball that allows the vitreal fluid to slowly diminish. Any impact that alters the shape of the eye itself will have an effect on vision. In most cases where a traumatic injury has occurred and immediate treatment was received, the amount of vision loss is minimal.
Just like any other organ in the body, the eye is a very delicate and complicated structure. The heart and lungs require special treatment, just as the eyes require a person with special skills to be able to successfully treat many of the injuries and illnesses associated with a person's vision and overall ocular health. Physicians who have experience with treating the eyes and protecting a person's vision understand how each part of the eye works and what is needed to prevent ocular damage. Although they cannot protect the eyes from the aging process, they know how to make corrections in certain areas to help restore vision or prevent vision loss from worsening.